Claude-Henri Chouard

Claude-Henri Chouard
Claude-Henri Chouard.jpg
Claude-Henri Chouard in 2015
Born(1931-07-03) 3 July 1931 (age 86)
Paris
ResidenceParis
NationalityFrench
FieldsSurgery, Otology
InstitutionsUniversity of Paris
Known forWork on cochlear implant
Notable awardsLegion d'honneur

Biography

Claude-Henri Chouard is certainly a French cosmetic surgeon born in (1931-07-03) 3 July 1931 (age group 86) in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, this Otologist is a full person in the Académie Nationale de Médecine (France Country wide Academy of Medication) since 1999. He was movie director from the AP-HP (Paris medical center group) Lab of Auditory Prosthesis and movie director from the ENT Analysis Lab at Paris-Saint-Antoine College or university Medical center from 1967 to 2001. He was also mind from the institution’s ENT Section from 1978 to 1998. In 1982, he was elected an associate from the International Collegium ORL-AS. He attained worldwide reputation in the past due 1970s because of the work finished by his Paris laboratory’s multidisciplinary group in the multichannel cochlear implant. This implanted digital hearing device originated at Saint-Antoine and alleviates bilateral total deafness. When implanted early in small children, additionally, it may help get over the spoken vocabulary problems connected with deafness.

Claude-Henri Chouard originates from a long type of academics and doctors. His dad, Pierre Chouard (1903–1983), was Teacher of Herb Physiology in the Sorbonne, and creator and director from the Gif-sur-Yvette Phytotron. He was a Place Dominican and for quite some time President from the International Culture of St Vincent de Paul. His grandfather, Jules Chouard, was a journalist and a article writer. His great grandfather, Martin-Jules Chouard, was a main school instructor and a painter. His mom, Denise Petit-Dutaillis, was the child of Dr Paul Petit-Dutaillis, a navy doctor and, later on, a gynaecologist at Saint Michel Medical center, Paris. His mother's uncle was Teacher Charles Petit-Dutaillis, an associate from the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and chief executive from the Institut de France. Her sibling was Teacher Daniel Petit-Dutaillis, a neurosurgeon at Pitié Salpêtrière Medical center and an associate from the Académie Nationale de Médecine. Claude-Henri Chouard wedded Isabelle, the elder child from the four ladies of Pierre Sainflou (1917–2007) Polytechnitien, X- 37, medical film-maker: that they had 4 children.

Training

Claude-Henri Chouard initially trained in neurologist Raymond Garcin and neuropsychiatrist Zeroël Peron, at Salpêtrière Medical center, before spending 30 a few months doing military provider in Algeria. Then finished his internship in the Paris medical center program, under Henri Guénin and Daniel Morel-Fatio, and afterwards Paul Pialoux and Maurice Aubry, who had been ENT experts and members from the Académie de Médecine. During his internship, he also examined politics and administration at Sciences Po from Paris and finished analysis in neuroanatomy at André Delmas' lab, with Charles Eyriès. For over half of a hundred years, Claude-Henri Chouard's interest continues to be the complex romantic relationship between doctor and individual: this interest has been in the centre of most his clinical schooling and 's the reason he hasn't ended practising.

Scientific contributions

Claude-Henri Chouard offers made a distinctive and personal contribution to all or any three fields where he spent some time working. The 1st two fields possess often needed him to pull on his operative experience and scientific empathy.

The multichannel cochlear implant

The multichannel cochlear implant was designed and created in 1975 at Saint-Antoine Medical center with a multidisciplinary team formed by Patrick MacLeod and Claude-Henri Chouard because of this extremely purpose. For over eight years, these experts were well before the rest of the international teams, before collapse of French firm Bertin temporarily place paid with their improvement. However, the primary principles established with the research workers in the patents applied for by Bertin Technology in 1977 remain utilized by today's producers of multichannel implanted auditory prostheses, both intracochlear and auditory human brain stem.In 1957, in Paris, André Djourno, a professor of medical physics, and Charles Eyriès, a Parisian otologist, restored simple hearing to a totally deaf affected individual with bilateral cholesteatoma by electrically rousing acoustic nerve fibres even now within the internal ear.Although this system—that was further developed many years afterwards by William House in Los Angeles—represented huge improvement for the reason that it freed patients in the silence and isolation where these were trapped due to total deafness, these devices never were able to enable patients to recognize words and phrases without lip reading. After twelve many years of studies, the research workers all decided on a very important factor: to attain the level of functionality required to provide these patients an appropriate social lifestyle, the cochlear implant would want several electrodes, so that it could stimulate the various frequency regions over the "cochlear key pad", that have been discovered by 1961 Nobel Award champion Georg von Békésy. Nevertheless, all the research workers hesitated in continue, fearful of failing and major problems.In 1973, after closely learning the tentative outcomes achieved so far, C.H. Chouard and Dr P. MacLeod, who acquired finished their medical schooling together, made a decision to deal with the issue. P. MacLeod was right now a researcher specialising in sensory physiology, while C.H. Chouard acquired personal connection with performing surgery over the cosmetic and vestibular nerves. They made a decision to combine these abilities and type a multidisciplinary group inside the ENT Study Lab at Saint-Antoine College or university Medical center in Paris. In 1975, they performed a completely ethical research on three individuals with recent distressing unilateral total deafness and total face paralysis, which needed surgery. The analysis demonstrated that selective electric excitement of eight to twelve electrodes, each isolated from others, put into different locations inside the tympanic duct from the cochlear, led to the understanding of different frequencies.Then, after creating a around windowpane electrical stimulation check to confirm the current presence of functional auditory fibres, the Paris-based group applied the electrode implantation strategy to five individuals with historic bilateral total deafness. Following a surgery treatment, and after going through relatively brief conversation therapy, all of the individuals—who have been totally deaf—could actually recognise a differing percentage of terms without lip reading. French business Bertin was after that selected to produce an operating implantable device, beneath the technological path of P. MacLeod. The table-top gadget was constructed quickly, however the untimely loss of life of Jean Bertin by the end of 1975 led to the company getting restructured, as well as the French research workers had to hold back until summer months 1976 to finally have the first six gadgets.The first implant was fitted at Saint-Antoine Medical center on Wednesday 22 Sept 1976, by C.H. Chouard, helped by Bernard Meyer. The initial patient's hearing came back the following time, as well as the five various other patients shortly underwent medical procedures. Bertin submitted patent no. 77/07824 on 16 March 1977. It had been predicated on MacLeod's physiological requirements and produced two simultaneous promises: - The sequential transmitting towards the cochlea of the indeterminate variety of regularity rings - The transmitting of most audible sound details.The first results were presented the next trip to the eleventh ENT World Congress in Buenos Aires, and published shortly afterwards.For nearly two decades, this record influenced all of the techniques used and analysis undertaken by various other international teams, who had been obliged to look for ways throughout the promises—usually by transmitting only area of the talk information—before patent fell in to the public domains in 1997.In 1982, at a gathering organised by the brand new York Academy of Sciences to examine the multichannel cochlear implant, Chouard and his team presented outcomes from 48 individuals (45 of whom had received an implant over twelve months previously) . Their paper also comprehensive multiple innovations made to improve treatment and enable the implant to adjust to the specific features of any staying auditory fibres. These methods were later used by the rest of the international groups. The results shown by the rest of the teams through the conference linked to just significantly less than ten individuals (predicated on the total amount of deaf individuals treated having a multichannel program).Also in 1982, Claude-Henri Chouard utilized Born's reconstruction technique, which he previously employed two decades previously during his neuro-anatomical research with C. Eyriès (discover below), to demonstrate—primarily in pets—that these devices needs to become implanted as soon as possible, to avoid atrophy from the central auditory constructions. His observations obviously show that phenomenon occurs rapidly in situations of consistent neonatal deafness.A couple of years afterwards, after multiple delays towards the delivery from the completely digital gadget that MacLeod and Chouard have been requesting since 1980, Bertin abandoned the implant and, in 1987, sold the licence to some other French firm: MXM-Neurelec.Meanwhile, simply because Bertin's apparent disinterest in the French gadget resulted in slower improvement, the American Blake S. Wilson developed a sound indication processing strategy straight inspired with the French research workers' function and patent, although the writer never made mention of this in virtually any of his following magazines. Since early 2014, many corrections, have already been published to handle this unexpected oversight, referring notably to varied previous functions by the Parisian group.In 1991, MXM-Neurelec presented its 1st multichannel implant. It had been fully digitised and may be modified to ossified cochleas. The implant was predicated on the Bertin licence, but its advancement was very carefully guided by recommendations from researchers in the Saint-Antoine ENT Study Lab in Paris.From 1992 onwards, the multichannel cochlear implant gradually gained acceptance in France.Today, in 2015, a lot of the concepts established by Claude-Henri Chouard and Patrick MacLeod's group between 1976 and 1977 remain utilized by all producers of cochlear implants and auditory mind stem implants.

Snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea

Between 1984 and 1990, prompted by his assistants Prof. Bernard Meyer and Fréderic Chabolle, and by using pulmonologist Prof. Bernard Fleury and cardiologist Prof. Jean Valty of Saint-Antoine Medical center, Claude-Henri Chouard began monitoring the symptomatology and epidemiology from the problems of a fresh disease in neuro-scientific ENT. He called this disease persistent rhonchopathy. The primary symptom is certainly snoring, which no-one had previously seen as a relevant indication of disease. Actually, the louder the snoring, the higher the risk that it's associated with serious obstructive rest apnoea. After laying the foundations for treatment advancement with his learners, Claude-Henri Chouard ceased to become personally involved with this section of analysis, departing the youngest associates of his group to continue improving our understanding of this brand-new disease and perfecting the matching treatments.

Neuroanatomy

Through the mid-twentieth century, Charles Eyriès was a researcher in the anatomy laboratory operate by Prof. André Delmas, spending his mornings as an ENT physician and his afternoons being a neuroanatomist. Claude-Henri Chouard was one of is own learners between 1960 and 1966. Eyriès trained him Born's way for 3D reconstruction of histological areas at a magnification of 100 and 150. This system was to verify useful two decades afterwards, when Chouard demonstrated that kids with neonatal deafness have to receive implants as soon as possible, prior to the auditory human brain structures start to atrophy 5. Chouard became acquainted with total deafness extremely in early stages in his profession, since he previously immediate access to details on the well-known electro-therapeutic studies performed by Eyriès in 1957 with André Djourno.Claude-Henri Chouard also identified the functional origins of acoustico-facial anastomoses by following reconstructed nerve fibres in one end towards the various other. This helped describe the potency of certain remedies for Menière's disease and uncovered the route used by efferent fibres in the internal ear.Utilizing the same method of reconstruct the solitary system and its own gustatory nuclei, he observed which the nucleus from the last brachial nerve, the pneumogastric nerve, extended quite a distance down, undoubtedly leading to afferent sensitivity from the enteric and airway pathways. This hypothesis continues to be the electro-physiological life which was lately demonstrated inside the intestines, and that could potentially are likely involved in certain types of diabetes.

Academic Work

L’aide au geste chirurgical par les navigateurs et les robots. (Rapport avec F. Dubois) Le retentissement du fonctionnement des éoliennes sur la santé de l'homme Le bruit dans la ville. Compétence scientifique et technique de l’professional et qualité de l’knowledge en responsabilité médicale (avec Jacques Hureau) 2011 Nanosciences et médecine (Rapport avec E. Cabanis, J. Chambron et E. Milgrom.)

Popular Medical Book

La grande peur du tumor, Mercure de France Édit. Paris, 1971, 175 p L’euthanasie en procès, La Pensée Universelle Édit. Paris, 1973, p. Entendre Sans Oreille ; Robert Laffont Édit. Paris, 1978, 210 p Vaincre le Ronflement et retrouver la forme ; Ramsay Garamont Édit. Paris, 1986, 223 p. Vaincre le Ronflement et retrouver la forme ;2° édition, Éditions du Rocher Édit. Paris, 1993, 187 p. Vaincre la Surdité : progrès et promesses. Éditions du Rocher Édit. 1995, 277 p. L’oreille musicienne : les chemins de la musique de l’oreille au cerveau. Gallimard Édit. Paris, 2001, 347 p., 2° édit-Folio 2011

Hobbies

For Claude-Henri Chouard, composing and artwork are both cultural actions in their personal correct and an expansion of his scientific function, proof his convictions around doctors' part in culture (see, for instance, his popular medical books). Writing

Painting

He's also interested in the visual arts, to which he was introduced in a young age group, via the paintings of his great grandfather, Martin-Jules Chouard. From age 13, Claude-Henri Chouard was an novice artist, dealing with a number of press, including pictures, and later integrated film and tv into his medical teaching. He exhibited his function frequently from 1982 onwards. He is a person in the French Culture of Independent Performers since 1986 and was elected documenting secretary in '09 2009 and 1st vice chief executive in March 2012, staying in the positioning until November 2014. Two of his functions are kept by Musée Miramion de l’Assistance Publique in Paris and evoke the transcendent character of surgery.

Honours and awards

Officier of Legion of Honour

Source
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